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调控效果显现 上海楼市“金九银十”降温开局

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: “房票”将释放 通州楼市会再热起来吗? (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

LED照明企业“拥抱”众筹:看行业大佬教你怎么“玩”

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

de离开,priv=privat私人的-从私人那里拿走-剥夺
A report from the ministry showed that employers recruited 5.2 million workers through public employment service agencies in the first quarter, dropping 229,000, or 4.5 percent, from the previous year.
The remarks by Recep Tayyip Erdogan come less than 24 hours before Dutch voters go to the polls in a national election that has been coloured by a heated debate about the role of Islam in Dutch society, spurred by anti-Islam candidate Geert Wilders. Mr Wilders’ Freedom party (PVV) is polling second in the race.
据预测,在大宗商品价格上涨和需求温和上升的推动下,2017年以美元计的新兴市场国家出口额将出现自2014年以来的首次增长。
The overall 2018 ranking encompasses more schools than ever before – 1,250 universities located across 74 countries. This is an increase from the 1,000 schools in 65 countries included in last year's edition.
克普克表示,在这些情况下,美联储不但能引发危机,还会增加新兴市场因其他因素引发危机的脆弱性。
The latest government figures were a big jump from data in mid-December, when1,200 people were said to have left or are seeking to leave to battle alongside jihadists.

尽管可以下载的课程具有较好前景,但在现实世界,得到官方承认的学历仍然基于课堂教学活动。初创公司采取了这样一种态度:如果他们无法以新的服务交付方式在高校的地盘上击败它们,那就应该与之建立合作伙伴关系。其结果是,他们忙着争取考试委员会核准他们的在线课程,使其可以算作学士或硕士学位资格的一部分。
举例来说,新浪微博就一直提供推特所不具备的一些功能,尤其是评论功能,让众多用户得以在别人发表的微博下发表自己的见解。拥有逾7亿用户的腾讯QQ即时信息服务也有众多附加功能,比如可以让用户改换形象的“皮肤”,同时QQ还是腾讯为其他产品和服务做广告的渠道。新浪拒绝置评。
Although the original book got 7.9 out of 10 on Douban, the TV version only got 5 for its poor adaptation.
Notably, the domain name for the top fake news story of the year is “abcnews.com.co.” In a November interview with The Verge, Professor Nicole A. Cooke of the University of Illinois’ School of Information Sciences cited the slight modification of familiar domains as a particularly dangerous and common tactic for fake news sites. They make the source look reputable at first glance. The man who operates abcnews.com.co told The Washington Post that he believes his websites were a key factor in the election of Donald Trump.
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Footnotes

  • 南京去年新房卖了6.2万套 个别板块“一房难求”
  • 喜剧类最佳女配角:凯特?麦金侬(Kate McKinnon),《周六夜现场》(Saturday Night Live)

如果你觉得现在的杜兰特骨瘦如柴,那你得瞧瞧他在蒙特罗斯基督教会学校时的瘦弱身板。
Outbound investment for the period totalled $86.3bn, according to the Ministry of Commerce.
这颗梨形蓝钻被命名为“蓝色”,重13.22克拉,拍前估价为2100万至2500万美元。
3.《初恋50次》
The general weakness in the renminbi, which fell 1.3 per cent in January and had weakened by 2.2 per cent in the final quarter of 2015, is likely playing a part, by making overseas goods more expensive. However, exports have yet to receive a boost from the currency’s depreciation.
As the unstoppable Nazi forces roll across Western Europe and the threat of invasion is imminent, and with an unprepared public, a skeptical King, and his own party plotting against him, Churchill must withstand his darkest hour, rally a nation, and attempt to change the course of world history.

机构:北京高端别墅市场销量环比下降62.4%

References

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